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Zeal AM-131 - História

Zeal AM-131 - História



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Zelo

(AM-131: dp. 890; 1. 221'2 "; b. 32'0"; dr. 10'9 "
(quer dizer); s. 18,1 k. (tl.); cpl. 105; uma. 1 3 ", 2 40 mm .;
cl. Auk)

Zeal (AM-131) foi estabelecido em 12 de janeiro de 1942 em Chickasaw, Alabama, pela Gulf Shipbuilding Co .; lançado em 15 de setembro de 1942; patrocinado pela Sra. John M. Hughes; e comissionado em 9 de julho de 1943, Tenente Comdr. H. M. Jones, USNR, no comando.

Depois de uma visita a Nova Orleans para deperming, Zeal começou no final de julho para um treinamento de shakedown a caminho de Norfolk, VA. Durante esse cruzeiro, ela conduziu um treinamento de tipo em Key West, Flórida. Entre 9 e 30 de agosto, a disponibilidade pós-shakedown no Norfolk Navy Yard ocupou seu tempo. Em 3 de setembro, ela recebeu ordens para prosseguir pela Baía de Guantánamo até o Canal do Panamá. Ela chegou à Baía de Guantánamo em 8 de setembro e, depois de carregar os suprimentos, partiu no dia seguinte para a Zona do Canal. Ela chegou a Coco Solo em 12 de setembro e operou de lá durante o mês seguinte. Em 12 de outubro, ela partiu do terminal do canal no Pacífico, com destino ao sudoeste do Pacífico. No caminho, o caça-minas fez paradas nas Ilhas Galápagos, Bora Bora e Tutuila. Em Suva, nas Ilhas Fiji, ela recebeu ordens de destacá-la de sua unidade para servir de escolta para o navio-tanque SS Pacific Sun em uma viagem de Suva para as Ilhas Novas Hébridas. Ela chegou ao Espírito Santo no dia 2 de novembro e, três dias depois, partiu em outra missão de escolta de comboio.

Essa missão estabeleceu o padrão para seus primeiros 11 meses no oeste do Pacífico. Ela escoltou comboios entre as ilhas do sudoeste do Pacífico, que naquela época estavam se tornando cada vez mais uma área de retaguarda. Ela também conduziu patrulhas anti-submarino. Em sua maior parte, as Ilhas Salomão, as Ilhas Novas Hébridas, as Ilhas Fiji e as Ilhas Marshall constituíam sua zona de operações.

Em agosto de 1944, no entanto, ela começou a treinar para sua primeira operação anfíbia. Operando em Tulagi e na Ilha da Flórida, ela praticou manobras de varredura de minas, treinadas em artilharia, e participou de aterrissagens de ensaio. Em 8 de setembro, ela começou a trabalhar com as outras unidades da Divisão de Minas (MinDiv) 14 para as Ilhas Palau. Ela chegou ao largo de Angaur, no Palaus, na manhã de 15 de setembro e passou os dois dias seguintes varrendo os acessos às praias da invasão. As varreduras de Angaur, no entanto, não renderam minas a ela. No dia 17, ela se mudou para o norte, para Kossol Roads, e começou a rastrear o ancoradouro da frota localizado lá contra o ataque de submarinos.

Logo depois disso, ela recebeu ordens para seguir para o Atol Ulithi. Ela chegou lá em 21 de setembro e começou a fazer varreduras na lagoa. Aqui, Zeal finalmente conseguiu cumprir a missão para a qual havia sido originalmente construída, varrendo oito minas durante a operação de limpeza do ancoradouro. Permaneceu em Ulithi até 26 de setembro, altura em que partiu do atol em companhia de um comboio de LST com destino à Holanda, Nova Guiné, onde fez uma breve paragem no dia 29. De lá, o navio continuou para Finschhafen e daí para Seeadler Harbour na Ilha de Manus, onde chegou em 2 de outubro.

Zeal permaneceu em Manus por oito dias. Em 10 de outubro, ela partiu com um comboio de minecraft com destino ao Golfo de Leyte. Durante os primeiros dias de trânsito, o tempo não causou problemas, mas, durante a última parte, piorou continuamente. Quando Zeal chegou ao Golfo de Leyte, uma tempestade que se aproximava das proporções de um tufão havia se instalado. Em 17 de outubro, o caça-minas começou a varredura pré-invasão das praias de assalto de Leyte conforme planejado. A tempestade, no entanto, atingiu o estágio de tufão naquele ponto e a forçou a se retirar da área.

O tufão diminuiu naquela noite e, na manhã do dia 18, Zeal voltou para retomar sua varredura. Naquele dia, o navio de guerra teve seu primeiro contato com os japoneses. Depois de cortar algumas minas ancoradas, um bombardeiro de mergulho "Val" sobrevoou e lançou duas bombas que erraram o Velocity (AM-128) por cerca de 200 metros. O avião japonês fez seu ataque e retirou-se antes que qualquer tripulação de arma de fogo pudesse equipar seus postos de batalha. Nos dias seguintes, Zeal avistou vários aviões inimigos; mas o ataque no dia 18 permaneceu seu único contato próximo com o inimigo até depois que ela completou suas tarefas de varredura de minas no dia 23 e se moveu mais para dentro do golfo perto de Dulag para se juntar ao grupo de apoio de fogo lá.

Durante sua estada no golfo, Zeal perdeu a Batalha pelo Golfo de Leyte, mas participou de alguns confrontos com aeronaves inimigas baseadas em terra. Um ataque aéreo particularmente intenso ocorreu em 25 de outubro, quando aviões japoneses atacavam os navios de quase todos os ângulos. Um bombardeiro bimotor "Betty" voou pelo lado estibordo de Zeal e puxou o fogo combinado de suas baterias de 3 polegadas e 20 milímetros. Alguns segundos depois, o intruso explodiu em chamas e salpicou o mar. Zeal escapou dos ataques aéreos com pouco ou nenhum dano, e sua tripulação sofreu apenas uma leve baixa. Em 28 de outubro, ela saiu do Golfo de Leyte no caminho de volta para Manus. O caça-minas entrou no porto de Seeadler em 5 de novembro.

Nove dias depois, ela deu início à primeira etapa de uma viagem de volta aos Estados Unidos. Viajando via Pearl Harbor, ela chegou a Portland, Oreg., Em 4 de dezembro. Ela foi revisada nos Estaleiros de Albina em dezembro e nos primeiros dois meses de 1945. Ela completou os reparos e partiu de Portland em 4 de março, com destino a um treinamento de reciclagem e remoção de minas ao longo da costa da Califórnia. Esse emprego a ocupou por cerca de um mês.

Em 2 de abril de 1945, ela partiu da costa oeste para retornar à guerra no oeste do Pacífico. Depois de paradas em Pearl Harbor e no Atol de Eniwetok, o caça-minas chegou a Kerama Retto em Ryukyus em 21 de maio para se juntar à última campanha da Segunda Guerra Mundial - o assalto de sete semanas em Okinawa. Durante sua missão em Okinawa, Zeal serviu nas estações de piquete de radar situadas ao redor da ilha e a alguma distância para fornecer um alerta antecipado de ataques aéreos de bases inimigas em Kyushu e Formosa.

Embora ela tenha testemunhado uma série de ataques aéreos kamikaze e convencionais em outros navios, ela sofreu apenas um desses arranhões. Na noite de 27 de maio, um hidroavião japonês começou uma corrida contra ela, mas suas baterias antiaéreas rapidamente o desencorajaram.

Zeal permaneceu em Okinawa até o início de julho, quando iniciou algumas operações de remoção de minas em grande escala. A primeira, designada Operação "Juneau", foi conduzida em um retângulo de 60 milhas no Mar da China Oriental. Ela voltou a Okinawa no final de julho para realizar uma disponibilização em preparação para uma operação semelhante, de codinome "Skagway". Em 15 de agosto, enquanto ela ainda estava passando por reparos, o Japão capitulou.

Uma semana depois, ela partiu de Okinawa a caminho da área de "Skagway", mas a missão foi adiada

por causa da necessidade mais urgente de varrer as águas domésticas japonesas para as forças de ocupação. No final de agosto, ela estava a caminho do norte de Honshu e, em 6 de setembro, apresentou-se para o serviço na Base Naval de Ominato. Ela varreu minas naquele local até 19 de outubro, quando recebeu ordens para se dirigir a Sasebo. Ela chegou a Sasebo em 24 de outubro, mas partiu dois dias depois para participar da Operação "Klondike" - outra grande varredura de minas conduzida no Mar da China Oriental. "Klondike" durou até 8 de novembro, data em que ela retornou a Sasebo para iniciar os reparos.

Zeal concluiu os reparos em 26 de novembro e partiu de Sasebo para outra série de varreduras em vários locais. Estas ela conduziu nas proximidades de Formosa e Ilhas Pescadores, operando fora de Kiirun, Formosa. Ao concluir essa tarefa, ela passou as férias em Xangai, na China. Ela partiu de Xangai em 3 de janeiro de 1946 e chegou a Sasebo no dia 5. Dez dias depois, ela começou a primeira etapa de sua viagem de volta para casa.

Depois de paradas em Eniwetok e Pearl Harbor, ela entrou em San Diego em 9 de fevereiro. Atribuído ao Grupo San Diego, Frota da Reserva do Pacífico, Zeal foi colocado fora de serviço em 4 de junho de 1946. Ela permaneceu inativa até 19 de dezembro de 1951, quando foi recomissionado em San Diego.

O caça-minas permaneceu na costa oeste até 19 de maio de 1952, quando partiu para o oeste do Pacífico. Depois de uma parada em Pearl Harbor no final de maio, Zeal continuou sua viagem para o oeste e chegou a Sasebo em 18 de junho. No dia 27, ela partiu de Sasebo para águas coreanas e operações de remoção de minas perto de Wonsan, Hungnam e Chongjin. Durante essas operações, ela foi atacada várias vezes por baterias inimigas, mas não sofreu danos. Em agosto, ela participou do resgate de 26 tripulantes da Sarsi (ATF-111) depois que o rebocador atingiu uma mina e afundou. Ela serviu na zona de combate coreana até o outono de 1952. Ela partiu de Sasebo em 19 de outubro e, após paradas em Midway e Oahu, chegou a Long Beach em 15 de novembro.

Por mais de dois anos, Zeal conduziu operações - quase exclusivamente evoluções de treinamento - em Long Beach, San Diego e outros portos da costa oeste. Em 21 de janeiro de 1955, ela partiu de Long Beach e embarcou em outro desdobramento com a 7ª Frota. No caminho, ela foi redesignada como MSF-131. Ela chegou a Sasebo em 15 de fevereiro e, durante os seis meses seguintes, conduziu operações na costa oeste da Coreia, bem como no Mar do Japão. Zeal partiu de Yokosuka em 10 de agosto e, após paradas em Midway e Oahu, chegou a Long Beach em 5 de setembro. Ela conduziu as operações na costa oeste até ser desativada no verão seguinte, em 6 de julho de 1956. Ela permaneceu com a Frota da Reserva do Pacífico por pouco mais de uma década. Seu nome foi retirado da lista da Marinha em 1 de dezembro de 1966, e seu casco despojado foi afundado como alvo em 9 de janeiro de 1967.

Zeal ganhou quatro estrelas de batalha durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial e mais quatro por seu serviço de varredura de minas no pós-guerra. Durante o conflito coreano, ela ganhou uma estrela de batalha.


EXPOSIÇÕES AO AMIANTO SOFRIDAS NOS NAVIOS DA MARINHA

Por décadas, os advogados de Levy Konigsberg representaram orgulhosamente os veteranos da Marinha e suas famílias. Entre as décadas de 1940 e 1990, centenas de milhares de marinheiros labutaram nos espaços de trabalho apertados dos navios de guerra, operando máquinas e equipamentos que mantinham seus navios em condições de navegar. Sem o conhecimento de nossos veteranos, muitos dos equipamentos que operavam e consertavam regularmente continham vários componentes de amianto que envenenavam seus pulmões. Anos de investigação e litígio revelaram que as empresas que enriqueciam por meio de contratos governamentais para fornecer equipamentos seguros à Marinha estavam cientes da ligação entre a exposição ao amianto de seus produtos e doenças pulmonares.

Grande parte da exposição ao amianto sofrida a bordo dessas embarcações ocorreu nas salas das caldeiras e espaços de engenharia. Marinheiros de várias classificações, incluindo boilertenders, companheiros de maquinistas, eletricistas, bombeiros e operadores de equipamentos, trabalhavam regularmente em locais de trabalho apertados e mal ventilados, operando e mantendo vários equipamentos que mantinham os navios em movimento. Equipamentos, incluindo caldeiras, bombas, válvulas, tanques, condensadores e turbinas, exigiam supervisão 24 horas por dia e manutenção regular.

A exposição ao amianto a bordo dessas embarcações foi extensa. Por exemplo, nos espaços de engenharia, os marinheiros eram obrigados a entender, operar e consertar várias bombas. Geralmente, cada casa de máquinas continha uma bomba primária e uma bomba reserva, se não mais, em caso de mau funcionamento da bomba. Uma variedade de bombas, incluindo bombas de salmoura ao mar, bombas de condensado, bombas de combustível, bombas de água, bombas de condensador, bombas de incêndio e bombas de esgoto, realizavam diferentes operações, mas todas continham várias peças de isolamento de amianto. Trabalhando próximos uns dos outros, os marinheiros regularmente abriam essas bombas, o que primeiro exigia a remoção do isolamento de amianto espesso do corpo da bomba. Em seguida, usando uma faca ou outra ferramenta, os marinheiros removiam meticulosamente as juntas de amianto gastas e a embalagem da bomba, que liberava milhares de fibras de amianto no ar. Uma vez limpos, os marinheiros instalariam novos componentes de amianto, muitas vezes fabricando gaxetas e embalando manualmente com folhas de amianto.

Outros equipamentos nas salas de máquinas exigiam a mesma manutenção. Engrenagens de redução, tanques de desaeração de alimentação, turbo geradores, turbinas, válvulas de todos os tamanhos e compressores de ar foram instalados nos espaços de engenharia e exigiram supervisão e manutenção constantes. Como as bombas instaladas nessas casas de máquinas, muitos desses equipamentos foram fortemente isolados com fibra de amianto devido ao calor produzido pelas máquinas. Trabalhando nas proximidades, os marinheiros removeram esse isolamento e inspecionaram regularmente o maquinário em busca de defeitos e necessidades de manutenção. Vários componentes de amianto, incluindo juntas, material de embalagem, bloco, corda e isolamento foram regularmente instalados e substituídos durante os cruzeiros, para garantir o desempenho adequado durante o mar.

Da mesma forma, a exposição ao amianto era galopante nas salas de caldeiras navais. Os equipamentos regularmente instalados nesses locais de trabalho incluem caldeiras, ventiladores de tiragem de ar forçado, bombas de alimentação, bombas de reforço, bombas de óleo combustível, tanques de água de alimentação, tanques de água doce, válvulas e compressores de ar. Os marinheiros nas salas das caldeiras eram obrigados a entender como operar, manter e reparar todos esses equipamentos. Durante os cruzeiros, os marinheiros subiam nas caldeiras para limpar a máquina, muitas vezes removendo juntas, material de embalagem e cordas desgastadas. Como esse maquinário estava em uso constante, a manutenção do maquinário 24 horas por dia era necessária, o que exigia a troca regular das gaxetas e embalagens de amianto gastas.

Em 2008, Levy Konigsberg representou Douglas Pokorney, em uma ação judicial contra várias empresas cujos produtos foram instalados na sala de caldeiras do USS Roan. O Sr. Pokorney alegou que ele foi regularmente exposto a grandes quantidades de pó de amianto das caldeiras Foster Wheeler instaladas no USS Roan, enquanto realizava suas funções na sala de caldeiras. Um júri de Syracuse concordou, concedendo $ 5 milhões de dólares, e considerou Foster Wheeler responsável por uma parte significativa dos danos devido à exposição regular do Sr. Pokorney a juntas, isolamento e outros componentes de amianto instalados nas caldeiras do navio. Como muitos outros réus, Foster Wheeler tentou colocar a responsabilidade na Marinha, apesar de saber por décadas que existia uma ligação entre a exposição ao amianto e doenças pulmonares. Este argumento foi rejeitado pelo júri. Para obter mais informações sobre este caso, clique aqui.

Alguns dos navios da Marinha onde confirmamos que muitos trabalhadores sofreram exposições significativas ao amianto incluem o seguinte:

• SS Atlantic
• SS Borinquen
• Pombo-correio SS
• SS Cabo Nome
• SS Colgate Victory
• Campeão de Exportação SS
• SS Export Courier
• SS Exminster
• SS Flying Arrow
• SS Flying Hawk
• SS Flying Trader
• SS Frederick E. Williamson (1944)
• Plantador SS Hawaiian
• Transporte SS Hong Kong
• SS Manhattan (1962)
• SS Marine Adder
• SS Marine Jumper
• SS Marine Tiger
• SS Matsonia (também conhecido como Etolin)
• SS Mormaclark
• SS Mormacmail (1946)
• SS Mormacmar
• SS Mormacsun
• SS Mormacsurf
• Vitória SS Muhlenberg
• SS Sea Pegasus
• SS Sea Tiger
• Vitória SS Wabash
• Vitória SS Yale
• USCGC Acacia (WAGL-406)
• USS Admiral E.W. Eberle (AP-123)
• USS Alamosa (AK-156)
• USS Albany (CA-123)
• USS Albert T. Harris (DE-447)
• USS Alcor (AK-259)
• USS Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617)
• USS Alhena (AKA-9)
• USS Allagash (AO-97)
• USS America (CV-66)
• USS Archer-Fish (SS-311)
• USS Ashland (LSD-1)
• USS Baltimore (CA-68)
• USS Benham (DD-796)
• USS Benjamin Franklin (SSBN-640)
• USS Benner (DD-807)
• USS Bennington (CV-20)
• USS Betelgeuse (AK-28, AKA-11)
• USS Betelgeuse (AK-260)
• USS Billfish (SSN-676)
• USS Black (DD-666)
• USS Block Island (CVE-106)
• USS Blue (DD-744)
• Jaqueta Azul USNS (T-AF-51)
• USS Bon Homme Richard (CV-31)
• USS Boston (CA-69)
• USS Boxer (CV-21)
• USS Bridget (DE-1024)
• USS Brinkley Bass (DD-887)
• USS Bristol (DD-857)
• USS Brownson (DD-868)
• USS Bunker Hill (CV-17)
• USS Burdo (APD-133)
• USS Cadmus (AR-14)
• USS Canberra (CA-70)
• USS Canisteo (AO-99)
• USS Carter Hall (LSD-3)
• USS Casa Grande (LSD-13)
• USS Casablanca (CVE-55)
• USS Cassin (DD-372)
• USS Cassin Young (DD-793)
• USS Catoctin (AGC-5)
• USS Chandeleur (AV-10)
• USS Charles H. Roan (DD-853)
• USS Charles J. Badger (DD-657)
• USS Charles R. Ware (DD-865)
• USS Charles S. Sperry (DD-697)
• USS Chicago (CA-136)
• USS Chipola (AO-63)
• USS Cimarron (AO-22)
• USS Clamagore (SS-343)
• USS Cleveland (CL-55)
• USS Collett (DD-730)
• USS Comfort (AH-6)
• USS Compton (DD-705)
• USS Cone (DD-866)
• USS Constellation (CV-64)
• USS Coontz (DDG-40)
• USS Coral Sea (CV-43)
• USS Croaker (SS-246)
• USNS Curtiss (T-AVB-4)
• USS Custer (APA-40)
• USS Dahlgren (DLG-12)
• USS Darter (SS-576)
• USS Davis (DD-937)
• USS Delong (DE-684)
• USS Des Moines (CA-134)
• USS Dewey (DDG-45)
• USS Dixie (AD-14)
• USS Donner (LSD-20)
• USS Douglas H. Fox (DD-779)
• USS Du Pont (DD-941)
• USS DuPage (APA-41)
• USS Inglês (DD-696)
• USS Entemedor (SS-340)
• USS Enterprise (CV-6)
• USS Enterprise (CVN-65)
• USS Essex (CV-9)
• USS Evans (DE-1023)
• USS Everglades (AD-24)
• USS Fargo (CL-106)
• USS Farragut (DLG-6)
• USS Fayette (APA-43)
• USS Finback (SSBN-670)
• USS Fiske (DD-842)
• USS Flasher (SS-249)
• USS Fletcher (DD-445)
• USS Flying Fish (SS-229)
• USS Flying Fish (SSN-673)
• USS Foote (DD-511)
• USS Forrestal (CV-59)
• USS Fort Mandan (LSD-21)
• USNS Unip. Francis X. McGraw (T-AK-241)
• USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42)
• USS Fred T. Berry (DD-858)
• USS Fulton (AS-11)
• USS Gatling (DD-671)
• USNS Geiger (T-AP-197)
• USS George Bancroft (SSBN-643)
• USS Gillette (DE-681)
• USS Glenard P. Lipscomb (SSN-685)
• USS Glennon (DD-840)
• USS Greenling (SSN-614)
• USS Grundy (APA-111)
• USS Gunston Hall (LSD-44)
• USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5)
• USS Gurke (DD-783)
• USS Hailey (DD-556)
• USS Hambleton (DD-455)
• USS Hammerberg (DE-1015)
• USS Hanson (DD-832)
• USS Harder (SS-568)
• USS Haynsworth (DD-700)
• USS Hazelwood (DD-536)
• USS Heermann (DD-532)
• USS Helena (CA-75)
• USS Henrico (APA-45)
• USS Hilary P. Jones (DD-427)
• Suporte USS (DD-819)
• USS Hopewell (DD-681)
• USS Hornet (CV-12)
• USS Howard D. Crow (DE-252)
• USS Hugh Purvis (DD-709)
• Casco USS (DD-945)
• USS Hunley (AS-31)
• Independência USS (CV-62)
• USS Intrepid (CV-11)
• USS Iowa (BB-61)
• USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2)
• USS James E. Kyes (DD-787)
• USS John King (DDG-3)
• USS John Paul Jones (DD-932)
• USS John R. Pierce (DD-753)
• USS Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. (DD-850)
• USS Kearsarge (CV-33)
• USS Kennebec (AO-36)
• USS Keppler (DD-765)
• USS Kidd (DD-661)
• USS King (DDG-41)
• USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63)
• USS Krishna (ARL-38)
• USCGC Kukui (WAK-186)
• USS Kyne (DE-744)
• USS L.Y. Lança (AS-36)
• USS Lafayette (SSBN-616)
• USS Laffey (DD-724)
• USS Lake Champlain (CV-39)
• USS Lexington (CV-16)
• USS Leyte (CV-32)
• USS Liberty (AGTR-5)
• USS Little Rock (CL-92)
• USS LST-274
• USS LST-316
• USS Ludlow (DD-438)
• USS Lynde McCormick (DDG-8)
• USS L.Y. Spears (AS-36)
• USS Macon (CA-132)
• USS Major (DE-796)
• USS Marias (AO-57)
• USS Markab (AD-21)
• USS Marlboro (APB-38)
• USS Mars (AFS-1)
• USS Meade (DD-602)
• USS Midway (CV-41)
• USS Missouri (BB-63)
• USS Mitscher (DL-2)
• USS Monongahela (AO-42)
• USS Monrovia (APA-31)
• USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7)
• USS Murphy (DD-603)
• USS Nantahala (AO-60)
• USS Narwhal (SS-167)
• USS Narwhal (SSN-671)
• USS Nautilus (SSN-571)
• USS Neches (AO-47)
• USS Nevada (BB-36)
• USS New Jersey (BB-62)
• USS Newport News (CA-148)
• USS Nitro (AE-2)
• USS Noa (DD-841)
• USS Carolina do Norte (BB-55)
• USS Northampton (CLC-1)
• USS O & # 8217Hare (DD-889)
• USS Oak Hill (LSD-7)
• USS Ohio (SSGN-726)
• USS Okinawa (LPH-3)
• USS Oklahoma City (CL-91)
• USS Oregon City (CA-122)
• USS Orion (AS-18)
• USS Oriskany (CV-34)
• USS Osberg (DE-538)
• USS Patoka (AO-9)
• USS Philip (DD-498)
• USS Picuda (SS-382)
• USS Pinkney (APH-2)
• USS Piper (SS-409)
• USS Pocono (AGC-16)
• USS Prairie (AD-15)
• USS Prevail (AM-107)
• USS Princeton (CV-37)
• USS Providence (CL-82)
• USS Raleigh (LPD-1)
• USS Randolph (CV-15)
• USS Renshaw (DD-499)
• USS Renville (APA-227)
• USS Richard B. Russell (SSN-687)
• USS Richard E. Byrd (DDG-23)
• USS Richard S. Edwards (DD-950)
• USS Ringgold (DD-500)
• USS Robert A. Owens (DD-827)
• USS Robert D. Conrad (T-AGOR-3)
• USS Robert H. McCard (DD-822)
• USS Rodman (DD-456)
• USS Salem (CA-139)
• USS San Pablo (AVP-30)
• USS Saratoga (CV-3)
• USS Saratoga (CV-60)
• USS Sarsfield (DD-837)
• USS Saufley (DD-465)
• USS Schroeder (DD-501)
• USS Sea Robin (SS-407)
• USNS Sgt. Archer T. Gammon (T-AK-243)
• USS Shenandoah (AD-26)
• USS Shreveport (LPD-12)
• USS Sierra (AD-18)
• USS Sigsbee (DD-502)
• USS Sims (DE-154)
• USS Skagit (AKA-105)
• USS Soley (DD-707)
• USS Somers (DD-947)
• USS South Dakota (BB-57)
• USS Southerland (DD-743)
• USS Springfield (CL-66)
• USS Stormes (DD-780)
• Stribling USS (DD-867)
• USS Surfbird (AM-383)
• USS Sylvania (AFS-2)
• USS Tennessee (BB-43)
• Baía USS Thetis (CVE-90)
• USS Thomas J. Gary (DE-326)
• USS Ticonderoga (CV-14)
• USS Topeka (CL-67)
• USS Trigger (SS-564)
• Truta USS (SS-566)
• USS Turner (DD-834)
• USS Turner Joy (DD-951)
• USS Tusk (SS-426)
• USNS Upshur (T-AP-198)
• USS Valley Forge (CV-45)
• USS Vancouver (LPD-2)
• USS Waccamaw (AO-109)
• USS Waldron (DD-699)
• USS Walton (DE-361)
• USS Warrington (DD-843)
• USS Wasatch (AGC-9)
• USS Wasp (CV-18)
• USS Wilkinson (DL-5)
• USS William R. Rush (DD-714)
• USS Willis A. Lee (DD-929)
• USS Windsor (APA-55) SS Excelsior
• USS Woolsey (DD-437)
• USS Worcester (CL-144)
• USS Yellowstone (AD-27)
• USS Yorktown (CV-10)
• USS Zeal (AM-131)

Se você ou um ente querido serviu a bordo de um navio da Marinha e desenvolveu uma doença relacionada ao amianto, incluindo mesotelioma ou câncer de pulmão, ligue para nosso escritório hoje para uma consulta gratuita.


The Veteran & # 039s Collection

Dois exemplos de colocação correta do SSI da Marinha, usado durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Mostrado nesses uniformes está o patch de Pessoal das Forças Anfíbias.

Os uniformes de gala da Marinha dos Estados Unidos permaneceram relativamente consistentes, mantendo sua aparência tradicional desde meados do século XIX. Desde o pulôver com aba e lenço de pescoço até a águia lindamente bordada e marcas especiais do crachá, o uniforme raramente se afasta muito de sua aparência única.

Houve algumas saídas ou variações de design que deixaram os tradicionalistas coçando a cabeça, perguntando-se por que os latões da marinha aparentemente tentaram fazer os uniformes navais assumirem características dos ramos militares irmãos.

Uma das mudanças mais significativamente negativas ocorreu durante a década de 1970, quando os uniformes de jumper (ambas as versões de vestido de serviço - azuis e brancos) foram sumariamente eliminados em favor do estilo baunilha de uma camisa branca de botão simples e calças pretas (conhecidas como “ sal e pimenta ”) com uma tampa combinada. A mudança durou pouco, pois os jumpers foram reinstituídos no início dos anos 1980 e estão em uso desde então. Devido à sua impopularidade, esses uniformes atraem pouco ou nenhum interesse dos colecionadores.

Outra mudança menos impactante aplicada ao uniforme de gala da Marinha era muito menos abrangente e parecia separar componentes navais específicos, em vez de fornecer unidade entre os serviços navais. Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, com as fileiras chegando ao máximo de todos os tempos, obviamente necessárias devido à necessidade de tripulação de uma frota de quase 6.100 navios, a natureza especializada de certas funções emergiu no centro das atenções, atraindo atenção significativa do resto do forças armadas e público americano. A necessidade de diferenciar esses serviços surgiu, de forma um tanto orgânica, à medida que as unidades passaram a adotar conceitos uniformes das demais filiais.

A insígnia de manga de ombro (SSI) tinha sido usada em todo o Exército dos EUA como um meio de identificar a quais unidades os soldados pertenciam. A Marinha nunca havia autorizado marcações semelhantes para seus uniformes (exceto os contadores de chapéu para o apartamento azul ou "Pato Donald" chapéus).

A camisa do uniforme exibia apenas taxa e classificação, bem como marcas distintivas no início da Segunda Guerra Mundial. No entanto, em 1943, os marinheiros da comunidade de caça-minas começaram a afixar um patch bordado vermelho, branco e azul circular (representando um dispositivo pintado visto a bordo de navios varredores de minas) em seus ombros esquerdos, diretamente acima do crachá de taxa. O oficial comandante do caça-minas, USS Zeal (AM-131), buscando determinar se tal patch foi autorizado para uso, enviou uma carta para o bronze da marinha. O Chefe do Pessoal Naval respondeu em 24 de junho de 1943 que o patch não era permitido para uso. Apesar da rejeição, os marinheiros continuaram a usar o SSI.

À medida que a guerra avançava, outros componentes navais começaram a adotar remendos nos ombros e a aprovação dos superiores para esses remendos começou a gotejar.

Insígnia de manga de ombro da Marinha dos EUA oficialmente aprovada (com data de aprovação):

  • Pessoal das Forças Anfíbias - janeiro de 1944
  • Pessoal do Torpedeiro a Motor (Barco PT) - setembro de 1944
  • Pessoal do Minecraft - dezembro de 1944
  • Batalhão de construção naval (abelhas marinhas) - outubro de 1944
Aprovado para uso no início de 1944, este patch das Forças Anfíbias Navais tem uma contraparte quase idêntica do Exército dos EUA (o mesmo emblema dourado em um campo azul) foi o primeiro de um punhado de SSI da Marinha (fonte da imagem: eBay). Este patch do Motor Torpedo Boat Personnel (PT Boat) foi aprovado para uso em setembro de 1944 (fonte: eBay). Minecraft Personnel SSI de 1944.
Patch autorizado “SEABEES” (fonte: National WWII Museum). Esta variação do patch SeaBees autorizado também se origina durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, mas incorpora a abreviatura para a unidade.

SSI não autorizado:

  • Patch de forças anfíbias (Gator)
  • Patch de pessoal de campo minado
  • Emblema de pessoal de defesa do porto
  • Mosquito Boat Patch
Esse patch não autorizado das Forças Anfíbias Navais começou a aparecer em 1943 (fonte: eBay). A marinha não permitiu este patch de pessoal de varredor de minas em 1943, mas isso não impediu seu uso na frota durante a guerra. (fonte: LJ Militaria). Embora não autorizado, este pessoal de defesa do Harbor (também conhecido como Harbor Net Tender) deve usar o uniforme azul (fonte: eBay).
Fabricado para usar em vestidos de azul, este é um bom exemplo de patch Mosquito Boat Personnel não aprovado (fonte: eBay). Esta variante branca do patch não autorizado do Mosquito Boat Personnel nunca foi usado em um uniforme (fonte: eBay).

Em 17 de janeiro de 1947, a Marinha mais uma vez abraçou a tradição e aboliu oficialmente todas as insígnias de manga de ombro.

Devido à sua produção considerável, os patches SSI autorizados são abundantes e facilmente acessíveis para colecionadores militaria. A insígnia não oficial será mais difícil de localizar e, em alguns casos, consideravelmente mais cara para adquirir.


Uma ruptura temporária com a tradição: insígnia de manga de ombro da Marinha

Dois exemplos de colocação correta do SSI da Marinha, usado durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Mostrado nesses uniformes está o patch de Pessoal das Forças Anfíbias.

Os uniformes de gala da Marinha dos Estados Unidos permaneceram relativamente consistentes, mantendo sua aparência tradicional desde meados do século XIX. Do pulôver com aba e lenço no pescoço à águia lindamente bordada e marcas especiais do crachá, o uniforme raramente se afasta muito de sua aparência única.

Houve algumas saídas ou variações de design que deixaram os tradicionalistas coçando a cabeça, perguntando-se por que os latões da marinha aparentemente tentaram fazer os uniformes navais assumirem características dos ramos militares irmãos.

Uma das mudanças mais significativamente negativas ocorreu durante a década de 1970, quando os uniformes de jumper (ambas as versões de vestido de serviço - azuis e brancos) foram sumariamente eliminados em favor do estilo baunilha de uma camisa branca de botão simples e calças pretas (conhecidas como “ sal e pimenta ”) com uma tampa combinada. A mudança durou pouco, pois os jumpers foram reinstituídos no início dos anos 1980 e estão em uso desde então. Devido à sua impopularidade, esses uniformes atraem pouco ou nenhum interesse dos colecionadores.

Outra mudança, menos impactante, aplicada ao uniforme de gala da Marinha era muito menos abrangente e parecia separar componentes navais específicos, em vez de fornecer unidade entre os serviços navais. Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, com as fileiras chegando ao máximo de todos os tempos, obviamente necessário devido à necessidade de tripulação de uma frota de quase 6.100 navios, a natureza especializada de certas funções emergiu no centro das atenções, atraindo atenção significativa do resto do forças armadas e público americano. A necessidade de diferenciar esses serviços surgiu, de forma um tanto orgânica, à medida que as unidades passaram a adotar conceitos uniformes das demais filiais.

A insígnia de manga de ombro (SSI) tinha sido usada em todo o Exército dos EUA como um meio de identificar a quais unidades os soldados pertenciam. A Marinha nunca havia autorizado previamente marcações semelhantes para seus uniformes (além de contadores de chapéu para o apartamento azul ou "Pato Donald" chapéus).

A camisa do uniforme exibia apenas taxa e classificação, bem como marcas distintivas no início da Segunda Guerra Mundial. No entanto, em 1943, os marinheiros da comunidade de caça-minas começaram a afixar um patch bordado vermelho, branco e azul circular (representando um dispositivo pintado visto a bordo de navios varredores de minas) em seus ombros esquerdos, diretamente acima do crachá de taxa. O oficial comandante do caça-minas, USS Zeal (AM-131), buscando determinar se tal patch foi autorizado para uso, enviou uma carta para o bronze da Marinha. O Chefe do Pessoal Naval respondeu em 24 de junho de 1943 que o patch não era permitido para uso. Apesar da rejeição, os marinheiros continuaram a usar o SSI.

À medida que a guerra avançava, outros componentes navais começaram a adotar remendos nos ombros e a aprovação dos superiores para esses remendos começou a gotejar.

Insígnia de manga de ombro da Marinha dos EUA oficialmente aprovada (com data de aprovação):

  • Pessoal das Forças Anfíbias - janeiro de 1944
  • Pessoal do Torpedeiro a Motor (Barco PT) - setembro de 1944
  • Pessoal do Minecraft - dezembro de 1944
  • Batalhão de construção naval (abelhas marinhas) - outubro de 1944
Aprovado para uso no início de 1944, este patch das Forças Anfíbias Navais tem uma contraparte quase idêntica do Exército dos EUA (o mesmo emblema dourado em um campo azul) foi o primeiro de um punhado de SSI da Marinha (fonte da imagem: eBay). Este patch do Motor Torpedo Boat Personnel (PT Boat) foi aprovado para uso em setembro de 1944 (fonte: eBay). Minecraft Personnel SSI de 1944.
Patch autorizado “SEABEES” (fonte: National WWII Museum). Esta variação do patch SeaBees autorizado também se origina durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, mas incorpora a abreviatura para a unidade.

SSI não autorizado:

  • Patch de forças anfíbias (Gator)
  • Remendo de Pessoal de Campo Minado
  • Emblema de pessoal de defesa do porto
  • Mosquito Boat Patch
This unauthorized Naval Amphibious Forces patch started appearing sometime in 1943 (source: eBay). The navy disallowed this Mine Sweeper Personnel patch in 1943, yet that did not prevent its use in the fleet during the war. (source: LJ Militaria). Though unauthorized, this Harbor Defense Personnel (also known as Harbor Net Tender) is for wear on the dress blue uniform (source: eBay).
Manufactured for wear on dress blues, this is a fine example of the un-approved Mosquito Boat Personnel patch (source: eBay). This white variant of the unauthorized Mosquito Boat Personnel patch has never been worn on a uniform (source: eBay).

On January 17, 1947, the Navy once again embraced tradition and officially abolished all shoulder sleeve insignia.

Due to their considerable production, the authorized SSI patches are plentiful and readily affordable for militaria collectors. The unofficial insignia will be more challenging to locate and in some cases be considerably more expensive to acquire.


"Operation Chastise" Set to Breach New Film

A release from Universal Studios via PR Newswire was published Aug 31, 2006 about a remake of Operation Chastise the 617 Squadron raid on the German Dams during WW II.

Along with the usual hype that "newly declassified information" will allow them to make it better - they touted that the new era of movie graphics which will allow some of the scenes to be filmed even better than the 1955 version.

Hopefully Peter Jackson does not "King Kong" it by having the Avro Lancasters zooming up 4000' in 15 seconds to avoid a German flak tower since with computer graphics you can do that. Creating a visual effect that is BELIEVEABLE vs just creating because you can are two totally different things - and Peter Jackson has not learned that yet - watch King Kong and you can see it! (He had to make it believable in Lord Of the Rings - else he would never work again - with a worldwide following of the books that meant deviating from the books would never be tolerated!)


Esta foto de USS Zeal AM 131 é exatamente como você vê com o fosco impresso ao redor. Você terá a opção de escolher entre dois tamanhos de impressão, 8 "x 10" ou 11 "x 14". A impressão estará pronta para emoldurar ou você pode adicionar um fosco adicional de sua escolha e montá-lo em um quadro maior. Sua impressão personalizada ficará incrível quando você emoldurá-la.

Nós podemos PERSONALIZAR sua impressão do USS Zeal AM 131 com seu nome, posto e anos de serviço e há NÃO COBRANÇA ADICIONAL para esta opção. Depois de fazer seu pedido, você pode simplesmente nos enviar um e-mail ou indicar na seção de notas do seu pagamento o que você gostaria de imprimir. Por exemplo:

Marinheiro da Marinha dos Estados Unidos
SEU NOME AQUI
Servido com Orgulho: Seus Anos Aqui

Seria um belo presente para você ou para aquele veterano especial da Marinha que você conhece, portanto, seria fantástico para decorar a parede de uma casa ou escritório.

A marca d'água “Great Naval Images” NÃO estará na sua impressão.

Tipo de mídia usado:

o USS Zeal AM 131 foto é impresso em Tela livre de ácido para arquivamento seguro usando uma impressora de alta resolução e deve durar muitos anos. A tela de textura tecida natural única oferece uma look especial e distinto que só pode ser capturado na tela. A maioria dos marinheiros amava seu navio. Foi sua vida. Onde ele tinha uma responsabilidade tremenda e vivia com seus companheiros mais próximos. À medida que envelhecemos, o apreço pelo navio e pela experiência da Marinha fica mais forte. A impressão personalizada mostra propriedade, realização e uma emoção que nunca vai embora. Ao passar pela gravura, você sentirá a experiência da pessoa ou da Marinha em seu coração.

Estamos no mercado desde 2005 e nossa reputação de ter ótimos produtos e a satisfação do cliente é realmente excepcional. Irá, portanto, desfrutar deste produto garantido.


Zeal AM-131 - History

passion, fervor, ardor, enthusiasm, zeal mean intense emotion compelling action. passion applies to an emotion that is deeply stirring or ungovernable. gave in to his passions fervor implies a warm and steady emotion. read the poem aloud with great fervor ardor suggests warm and excited feeling likely to be fitful or short-lived. a ardor of their honeymoon soon faded enthusiasm applies to lively or eager interest in or admiration for a proposal, cause, or activity. never showed much enthusiasm for sports zeal implies energetic and unflagging pursuit of an aim or devotion to a cause. preaches with fanatical zeal


Zeal AM-131 - History

Nine days later, Zeal began the first leg of a voyage back to the United States. Steaming via Pearl Harbor, she arrived in Portland, Oregon, on 4 December. Ela era overhauled there at the Albina Shipards during December and the first two months of 1945. She completed repairs and departed Portland on 4 March, bound for refresher and minesweeping training along the coast of California. That employment occupied her for about a month.

In 2014, Muni sent 1056, the first from the original batch of sixteen to be overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. The entire first batch of sixteen is scheduled to be rebuilt at Brookville the next cars to be sent were 1051, 1060, and 1059 in that order followed (in indeterminate order) by 1055, 1062, and 1063. The first streetcar to re-enter service, 1051, was re-dedicated to Harvey Milk in March 2017, and was followed back into service by 1056.

All of these cars were purchased by Twin Cities Rapid Transit in 1946. They were sold to Newark in 1953 and ran on the Newark City Subway until replacement by modern light rail vehicles in 2001. The San Francisco Municipal Railway acquired these cars in 2004 and had the cars overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. Some of the cars were put in service in early 2007, but were taken out of service for wiring problems. These problems were eventually repaired. All these cars are single-end cars.

Overhauled and her crew restored to health, Midnight arrived Port Royal, South Carolina, 16 October for service in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. For almost 2 years she continued this duty, a strong link in the chain which the Union Navy had forged and was drawing ever tighter around the Confederacy. On 3 February 1864 she captured British schooner Defy off Doboy Light, Georgia, sailing from Nassau to Beaufort, North Carolina with a cargo of salt for the South. Midnight was ordered to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 August for repairs.

The English localization of Golden Fantasia Cross, titled Umineko: Golden Fantasia, was released on December 8, 2017. In addition to the new English translation, the game's netcode was overhauled to use a "rollback" system which mitigates input delay, similar to networking middleware GGPO. Steam integration was also introduced, which allows players to create lobbies and invite friends without the need to exchange IP addresses.

In further developer announcements , KOEI announced that the land battle system will be overhauled into a "Ranged-Shift Battle" system where players will choose from short, mid, and long-ranged combat positions with strengths and weaknesses. As well, 3 combat classes will be released to enhance land combat-oriented players. New "Imperial Quests" will allow players to run quests pertaining to a specific country.

Cotterill was born in Ampton in 1812 into an ecclesiastical family of committed Church Evangelicals. His father, Joseph Cotterill (1780 – 1858), was Rector of Blakeney, Norfolk, and a prebendary of Norwich Cathedral. His mother, Anne Boak, was a close friend of Hannah More. Educated at his father's old college, St John's College, Cambridge, he was both Senior Wrangler and headed the list of Classicists in 1835, on the strength of which he was elected as a Fellow of his college. Influenced by Charles Simeon, he was ordained in 1836 and went to India as Chaplain to the Madras Presidency the following year. Forced by malaria to return to England in 1846, he became inaugural Vice Principal and then the second Principal of Brighton College. In post less than six years, he reinvigorated the languishing infant school. In a whirlwind of energetic reform, he overhauled the curriculum by introducing the teaching of the sciences and oriental languages, restored discipline, launched a fund to build a chapel, built the first on-site boarding house and connected the school to the town's gas supply.

The stained glass in the windows of the chancel, and in eight of the clerestory windows, was made by Morris & Co., based on designs by Edward Burne-Jones, and dated between 1901 and 1928. Of the later windows, two were made by James Powell and Sons of Whitefriars, and a third by William Wilson of Edinburgh. The three-manual pipe organ was moved to the present church from Renshaw Street. It had been built in 1869 by William Hill and Son, and repaired between 1873 and 1883 by Gray and Davidson. It was rebuilt in 1910 by Rushworth and Dreaper, and overhauled by the same firm in 1937.

Trent Reznor overhauled the band line-up and image for the tour guitarist Robin Finck joined to play guitar while Danny Lohner joined on to play bass guitar. However, Chris Vrenna and James Woolley were brought back from the Pretty Hate Machine Tour Series. Image-wise, instead of the sloppy, low-budget style for previous tours, the band often dressed in black leather smothered in cornstarch, with band members often changing their hairstyles to radical hair styles for every concert. Robin Finck used makeup to hide his eyebrows, and Reznor would often don his 'fishnet gloves' (as they would come to be known) for the show. The band's showy yet intense tour style gave the band comparisons to David Bowie, whom Reznor was a big fan of. Later in the tour, Bowie and Reznor's protégé, Marilyn Manson, would often join the frontman on stage to sing their songs&mdashas evident in the Closure tour documentary.

Cars 7340, 7446, 7505, 7657, 7659, and 7691 were converted to R123 continuous welded rail holder cars for set DCR and overhauled under the R128 program.

After Noma's return to Vincent Astor he sold her to the department store magnate Rodman Wanamaker and by early 1920 she was being extensively overhauled and improved at South Brooklyn, again supervised by Tams, Lemoine & Crane. In 1923 Noma was chartered to William Beebe for his first expedition to the Galápagos Islands. In about 1927, Noma was sold to Nelson B. Warden and renamed Vega.

On 19 February 2004, Theodore Roosevelt entered a ten-month Docked Planned Incremental Availability (DPIA) at NNSY in Portsmouth. Major systems overhauled included AC systems, Steam and CHT (sewage) systems, 1MC (announcing) systems, communication, navigation, and detection suites, weapons elevator overhauls, propeller replacement, hull cleaning and painting, and sea valve replacement. Theodore Roosevelt came out of dry-dock in August and completed the maintenance availability on 17 December 2004.

On her fourth war patrol, she sailed from Fremantle, Australia on 19 April, and patrolled north of the Palau Islands and off Wake Island, before reaching Honolulu on 25 May. From 30 May – 9 June, she patrolled north of Oahu. Overhauled at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, she guided bombers to Wake Island in December, and escaped from a severe depth-charging on 14 January 1943 during an attempted attack off Japan. Departing Pearl Harbor on 31 March, she fired torpedoes at targets off Truk from 12–14 April, and shelled Satawan Island on the 25th.

The Royal Navy currently operates from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, Plymouth—Devonport is the largest operational naval base in the UK and Western Europe. Each base hosts a flotilla command under a commodore, or, in the case of Clyde, a captain, responsible for the provision of operational capability using the ships and submarines within the flotilla. 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines is similarly commanded by a brigadier and based in Plymouth. Historically, the Royal Navy maintained Royal Navy Dockyards around the world. Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where ships are overhauled and refitted. Only four are operating today at Devonport, Faslane, Rosyth and at Portsmouth. A Naval Base Review was undertaken in 2006 and early 2007, the outcome being announced by Secretary of State for Defence, Des Browne, confirming that all would remain however some reductions in manpower were anticipated.

It was reported in 2003 that SLC-3E would be overhauled to serve as a launch platform for the Atlas V. Renovations of SLC-3E began after a January 2004 ground breaking ceremony. Along with other work, the Mobile Service Tower roof was raised by approximately 30 ft to a height of 239 ft to accommodate an Atlas V 500 series vehicle with its larger payload fairing. In July 2004, Lockheed Martin announced the arrival of the fourth and final segment of the fixed launch platform (FLP). The segments had been transported from a fabrication facility in Oak Hill, FL, 3500 mi away. The largest segment weighed 90 tons and was "thought to be the biggest over-the-road shipment ever attempted cross-country." In February 2005, the activation team handed over the launch pad to the operational team, marking the end of major reconstruction. The first Atlas V launch from SLC-3E took place at 10:02 GMT on March 13, 2008.

Microsoft showcased other aspects of the new operating system, to be known as Windows 8, during subsequent presentations. Among these changes (which also included an overhauled interface optimized for use on touch-based devices built around Metro design language) was the introduction of Windows Runtime (WinRT). Software developed using this new architecture could be processor-independent (allowing compatibility with both x86 and ARM-based systems), would emphasize the use of touch input, would run within a sandboxed environment to provide additional security, and be distributed through Windows Store—a store similar to services such as the App Store and Google Play. WinRT was also optimized to provide a more "reliable" experience on ARM-based devices as such, backward compatibility for Win32 software otherwise compatible with older versions of Windows was intentionally excluded from Windows on ARM. Windows developers indicated that existing Windows applications were not specifically optimized for reliability and energy efficiency on the ARM architecture and that WinRT was sufficient for providing "full expressive power" for applications, "while avoiding the traps and pitfalls that can potentially reduce the overall experience for consumers." Consequentially, this lack of backward compatibility would also prevent existing malware from running on the operating system.

In mid-August 1987, WNEV overhauled its on-air image. The station dropped its "SE7EN" identity in favor of a new logo, which consisted of the number "7" made up of seven white dots inside of a blue circle. The logo was introduced as a part of the new station-wide campaign, "We're All on the Same Team", in which the seven dots represented the heads of team members. The dots also had dual usage, as lottery balls, in promotions for Lottery Live, the Massachusetts State Lottery drawings which were moving to WNEV late that summer. The campaign was primarily launched as a continued attempt to bolster the station's third-place news ratings, and to promote its news-sharing partnership with other TV and radio stations, The New England News Exchange.

Advertising sales for the stations paled in comparison to the competition, and managing both stations became a burden for the couple, so the Stewarts sold the station in 1972 to Fairchild Industries for $1.5 million. Fairchild subsequently dismissed the entire staff and overhauled both stations. On November 3, 1972, the AM station was relaunched as WYOO, picking up an oldies format (with rock and roll included). A few days later, WPBC-FM became WRAH and programmed an automated album oriented rock format. When the oldies format of WYOO started to slide in the ratings, more MOR music was added, but ratings slid even further. Fairchild contemplated selling the station. The general manager (Mike Sigelman) and program director (Rob Sherwood) (1974), both hired from established Top 40 station KDWB, felt a major change needed to be made.

In 2013, Governor Rick Scott signed the Timely Justice Act (HB 7101) which overhauled the processes for capital punishment. The United States Supreme Court struck down part of this law in January 2016 in Hurst v. Florida, declaring that a judge determining the aggravating facts to be used in considering a death sentence with only a non-binding recommendation from the jury based on a majority vote was insufficient and violated the Sixth Amendment guarantee of a jury trial. The Florida legislature passed a new statute to comply with the judgement in March 2016, changing the sentencing method to require a 10-juror supermajority for a sentence of death with a life sentence as the alternative. This new sentencing scheme was struck down by the Florida Supreme Court in a ruling 5–2 in October 2016, which held that a death sentence must be issued by a unanimous jury. The United States Supreme Court later left this decision undisturbed. Governor Scott in early 2017 signed a new law requiring a unanimous jury.

During 1954 she was overhauled at Norfolk Navy Yard, took refresher training at Narragansett Bay and another "Sunec" cruise on which she visited Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland. Two training cruises in the Caribbean in 1955 were succeeded by a third "Sunec" deployment on which she crossed the Arctic Circle for the second time.


William Wilberforce

"So enormous, so dreadful, so irremediable did the [slave] trade's wickedness appear that my own mind was completely made up for abolition. Let the consequences be what they would: I from this time determined that I would never rest until I had effected its abolition."

In the late 1700s, when William Wilberforce was a teenager, English traders raided the African coast on the Gulf of Guinea, captured between 35,000 and 50,000 Africans a year, shipped them across the Atlantic, and sold them into slavery. It was a profitable business that many powerful people had become dependent upon. One publicist for the West Indies trade wrote, "The impossibility of doing without slaves in the West Indies will always prevent this traffic being dropped. The necessity, the absolute necessity, then, of carrying it on, must, since there is no other, be its excuse."

By the late 1700s, the economics of slavery were so entrenched that only a handful of people thought anything could be done about it. That handful included William Wilberforce.

Taking on a purpose

This would have surprised those who knew Wilberforce as a young man. He grew up surrounded by wealth. He was a native of Hull and educated at St. John's College at Cambridge. But he wasn't a serious student. He later reflected, "As much pains were taken to make me idle as were ever taken to make me studious." A neighbor at Cambridge added, "When he [Wilberforce] returned late in the evening to his rooms, he would summon me to join him&hellip. He was so winning and amusing that I often sat up half the night with him, much to the detriment of my attendance at lectures the next day."

Linha do tempo

George Whitefield converted

John & Charles Wesley's evangelical conversions

First production of Handel's messias

David Livingstone sails for Africa

Yet Wilberforce had political ambitions and, with his connections, managed to win election to Parliament in 1780, where he formed a lasting friendship with William Pitt, the future prime minister. But he later admitted, "The first years in Parliament I did nothing&mdashnothing to any purpose. My own distinction was my darling object."

But he began to reflect deeply on his life, which led to a period of intense sorrow. "I am sure that no human creature could suffer more than I did for some months," he later wrote. His unnatural gloom lifted on Easter 1786, "amidst the general chorus with which all nature seems on such a morning to be swelling the song of praise and thanksgiving." He had experienced a spiritual rebirth.

He abstained from alcohol and practiced rigorous self-examination as befit, he believed, a "serious" Christian. He abhorred the socializing that went along with politicking. He worried about "the temptations at the table," the endless dinner parties, which he thought were full of vain and useless conversation: "[They] disqualify me for every useful purpose in life, waste my time, impair my health, fill my mind with thoughts of resistance before and self-condemnation afterwards."

He began to see his life's purpose: "My walk is a public one," he wrote in his diary. "My business is in the world, and I must mix in the assemblies of men or quit the post which Providence seems to have assigned me."

In particular, two causes caught his attention. First, under the influence of Thomas Clarkson, he became absorbed with the issue of slavery. Later he wrote, "So enormous, so dreadful, so irremediable did the trade's wickedness appear that my own mind was completely made up for abolition. Let the consequences be what they would: I from this time determined that I would never rest until I had effected its abolition."

Wilberforce was initially optimistic, even naively so. He expressed "no doubt" about his chances of quick success. As early as 1789, he and Clarkson managed to have 12 resolutions against the slave trade introduced&mdashonly to be outmaneuvered on fine legal points. The pathway to abolition was blocked by vested interests, parliamentary filibustering, entrenched bigotry, international politics, slave unrest, personal sickness, and political fear. Other bills introduced by Wilberforce were defeated in 1791, 1792, 1793, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1804, and 1805.

When it became clear that Wilberforce was not going to let the issue die, pro-slavery forces targeted him. He was vilified opponents spoke of "the damnable doctrine of Wilberforce and his hypocritical allies." The opposition became so fierce, one friend feared that one day he would read about Wilberforce's being "carbonated [broiled] by Indian planters, barbecued by African merchants, and eaten by Guinea captains."

Prime minister of philanthropy

Slavery was only one cause that excited Wilberforce's passions. His second great calling was for the "reformation of manners," that is, morals. In early 1787, he conceived of a society that would work, as a royal proclamation put it, "for the encouragement of piety and virtue and for the preventing of vice, profaneness, and immorality." It eventually become known as the Society for the Suppression of Vice.

In fact, Wilberforce&mdashdubbed "the prime minister of a cabinet of philanthropists"&mdashwas at one time active in support of 69 philanthropic causes. He gave away one-quarter of his annual income to the poor. He fought on behalf of chimney sweeps, single mothers, Sunday schools, orphans, and juvenile delinquents. He helped found parachurch groups like the Society for Bettering the Cause of the Poor, the Church Missionary Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society, and the Antislavery Society.

In 1797, he settled at Clapham, where he became a prominent member of the "Clapham Sect," a group of devout Christians of influence in government and business. That same year he wrote Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians&mdasha scathing critique of comfortable Christianity that became a bestseller.

All this in spite of the fact that poor health plagued him his entire life, sometimes keeping him bedridden for weeks. During one such time in his late twenties, he wrote, "[I] am still a close prisoner, wholly unequal even to such a little business as I am now engaged in: add to which my eyes are so bad that I can scarce see how to direct my pen."

He survived this and other bouts of debilitating illness with the help of opium, a new drug at the time, the affects of which were still unknown. Wilberforce soon became addicted, though opium's hallucinatory powers terrified him, and the depressions it caused virtually crippled him at times.

When healthy, however, he was a persistent and effective politician, partly due to his natural charm and partly to his eloquence. His antislavery efforts finally bore fruit in 1807: Parliament abolished the slave trade in the British Empire. He then worked to ensure the slave trade laws were enforced and, finally, that slavery in the British Empire was abolished. Wilberforce's health prevented him from leading the last charge, though he heard three days before he died that the final passage of the emancipation bill was ensured in committee.


Zeal AM-131 - History

Nine days later, Zeal began the first leg of a voyage back to the United States. Steaming via Pearl Harbor, she arrived in Portland, Oregon, on 4 December. Ela era overhauled there at the Albina Shipards during December and the first two months of 1945. She completed repairs and departed Portland on 4 March, bound for refresher and minesweeping training along the coast of California. That employment occupied her for about a month.

In 2014, Muni sent 1056, the first from the original batch of sixteen to be overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. The entire first batch of sixteen is scheduled to be rebuilt at Brookville the next cars to be sent were 1051, 1060, and 1059 in that order followed (in indeterminate order) by 1055, 1062, and 1063. The first streetcar to re-enter service, 1051, was re-dedicated to Harvey Milk in March 2017, and was followed back into service by 1056.

All of these cars were purchased by Twin Cities Rapid Transit in 1946. They were sold to Newark in 1953 and ran on the Newark City Subway until replacement by modern light rail vehicles in 2001. The San Francisco Municipal Railway acquired these cars in 2004 and had the cars overhauled at Brookville Equipment Corporation. Some of the cars were put in service in early 2007, but were taken out of service for wiring problems. These problems were eventually repaired. All these cars are single-end cars.

Overhauled and her crew restored to health, Midnight arrived Port Royal, South Carolina, 16 October for service in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. For almost 2 years she continued this duty, a strong link in the chain which the Union Navy had forged and was drawing ever tighter around the Confederacy. On 3 February 1864 she captured British schooner Defy off Doboy Light, Georgia, sailing from Nassau to Beaufort, North Carolina with a cargo of salt for the South. Midnight was ordered to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2 August for repairs.

The English localization of Golden Fantasia Cross, titled Umineko: Golden Fantasia, was released on December 8, 2017. In addition to the new English translation, the game's netcode was overhauled to use a "rollback" system which mitigates input delay, similar to networking middleware GGPO. Steam integration was also introduced, which allows players to create lobbies and invite friends without the need to exchange IP addresses.

In further developer announcements , KOEI announced that the land battle system will be overhauled into a "Ranged-Shift Battle" system where players will choose from short, mid, and long-ranged combat positions with strengths and weaknesses. As well, 3 combat classes will be released to enhance land combat-oriented players. New "Imperial Quests" will allow players to run quests pertaining to a specific country.

Cotterill was born in Ampton in 1812 into an ecclesiastical family of committed Church Evangelicals. His father, Joseph Cotterill (1780 – 1858), was Rector of Blakeney, Norfolk, and a prebendary of Norwich Cathedral. His mother, Anne Boak, was a close friend of Hannah More. Educated at his father's old college, St John's College, Cambridge, he was both Senior Wrangler and headed the list of Classicists in 1835, on the strength of which he was elected as a Fellow of his college. Influenced by Charles Simeon, he was ordained in 1836 and went to India as Chaplain to the Madras Presidency the following year. Forced by malaria to return to England in 1846, he became inaugural Vice Principal and then the second Principal of Brighton College. In post less than six years, he reinvigorated the languishing infant school. In a whirlwind of energetic reform, he overhauled the curriculum by introducing the teaching of the sciences and oriental languages, restored discipline, launched a fund to build a chapel, built the first on-site boarding house and connected the school to the town's gas supply.

The stained glass in the windows of the chancel, and in eight of the clerestory windows, was made by Morris & Co., based on designs by Edward Burne-Jones, and dated between 1901 and 1928. Of the later windows, two were made by James Powell and Sons of Whitefriars, and a third by William Wilson of Edinburgh. The three-manual pipe organ was moved to the present church from Renshaw Street. It had been built in 1869 by William Hill and Son, and repaired between 1873 and 1883 by Gray and Davidson. It was rebuilt in 1910 by Rushworth and Dreaper, and overhauled by the same firm in 1937.

Trent Reznor overhauled the band line-up and image for the tour guitarist Robin Finck joined to play guitar while Danny Lohner joined on to play bass guitar. However, Chris Vrenna and James Woolley were brought back from the Pretty Hate Machine Tour Series. Image-wise, instead of the sloppy, low-budget style for previous tours, the band often dressed in black leather smothered in cornstarch, with band members often changing their hairstyles to radical hair styles for every concert. Robin Finck used makeup to hide his eyebrows, and Reznor would often don his 'fishnet gloves' (as they would come to be known) for the show. The band's showy yet intense tour style gave the band comparisons to David Bowie, whom Reznor was a big fan of. Later in the tour, Bowie and Reznor's protégé, Marilyn Manson, would often join the frontman on stage to sing their songs&mdashas evident in the Closure tour documentary.

Cars 7340, 7446, 7505, 7657, 7659, and 7691 were converted to R123 continuous welded rail holder cars for set DCR and overhauled under the R128 program.

After Noma's return to Vincent Astor he sold her to the department store magnate Rodman Wanamaker and by early 1920 she was being extensively overhauled and improved at South Brooklyn, again supervised by Tams, Lemoine & Crane. In 1923 Noma was chartered to William Beebe for his first expedition to the Galápagos Islands. In about 1927, Noma was sold to Nelson B. Warden and renamed Vega.

On 19 February 2004, Theodore Roosevelt entered a ten-month Docked Planned Incremental Availability (DPIA) at NNSY in Portsmouth. Major systems overhauled included AC systems, Steam and CHT (sewage) systems, 1MC (announcing) systems, communication, navigation, and detection suites, weapons elevator overhauls, propeller replacement, hull cleaning and painting, and sea valve replacement. Theodore Roosevelt came out of dry-dock in August and completed the maintenance availability on 17 December 2004.

On her fourth war patrol, she sailed from Fremantle, Australia on 19 April, and patrolled north of the Palau Islands and off Wake Island, before reaching Honolulu on 25 May. From 30 May – 9 June, she patrolled north of Oahu. Overhauled at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, California, she guided bombers to Wake Island in December, and escaped from a severe depth-charging on 14 January 1943 during an attempted attack off Japan. Departing Pearl Harbor on 31 March, she fired torpedoes at targets off Truk from 12–14 April, and shelled Satawan Island on the 25th.

The Royal Navy currently operates from three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport, Plymouth—Devonport is the largest operational naval base in the UK and Western Europe. Each base hosts a flotilla command under a commodore, or, in the case of Clyde, a captain, responsible for the provision of operational capability using the ships and submarines within the flotilla. 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines is similarly commanded by a brigadier and based in Plymouth. Historically, the Royal Navy maintained Royal Navy Dockyards around the world. Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where ships are overhauled and refitted. Only four are operating today at Devonport, Faslane, Rosyth and at Portsmouth. A Naval Base Review was undertaken in 2006 and early 2007, the outcome being announced by Secretary of State for Defence, Des Browne, confirming that all would remain however some reductions in manpower were anticipated.

It was reported in 2003 that SLC-3E would be overhauled to serve as a launch platform for the Atlas V. Renovations of SLC-3E began after a January 2004 ground breaking ceremony. Along with other work, the Mobile Service Tower roof was raised by approximately 30 ft to a height of 239 ft to accommodate an Atlas V 500 series vehicle with its larger payload fairing. In July 2004, Lockheed Martin announced the arrival of the fourth and final segment of the fixed launch platform (FLP). The segments had been transported from a fabrication facility in Oak Hill, FL, 3500 mi away. The largest segment weighed 90 tons and was "thought to be the biggest over-the-road shipment ever attempted cross-country." In February 2005, the activation team handed over the launch pad to the operational team, marking the end of major reconstruction. The first Atlas V launch from SLC-3E took place at 10:02 GMT on March 13, 2008.

Microsoft showcased other aspects of the new operating system, to be known as Windows 8, during subsequent presentations. Among these changes (which also included an overhauled interface optimized for use on touch-based devices built around Metro design language) was the introduction of Windows Runtime (WinRT). Software developed using this new architecture could be processor-independent (allowing compatibility with both x86 and ARM-based systems), would emphasize the use of touch input, would run within a sandboxed environment to provide additional security, and be distributed through Windows Store—a store similar to services such as the App Store and Google Play. WinRT was also optimized to provide a more "reliable" experience on ARM-based devices as such, backward compatibility for Win32 software otherwise compatible with older versions of Windows was intentionally excluded from Windows on ARM. Windows developers indicated that existing Windows applications were not specifically optimized for reliability and energy efficiency on the ARM architecture and that WinRT was sufficient for providing "full expressive power" for applications, "while avoiding the traps and pitfalls that can potentially reduce the overall experience for consumers." Consequentially, this lack of backward compatibility would also prevent existing malware from running on the operating system.

In mid-August 1987, WNEV overhauled its on-air image. The station dropped its "SE7EN" identity in favor of a new logo, which consisted of the number "7" made up of seven white dots inside of a blue circle. The logo was introduced as a part of the new station-wide campaign, "We're All on the Same Team", in which the seven dots represented the heads of team members. The dots also had dual usage, as lottery balls, in promotions for Lottery Live, the Massachusetts State Lottery drawings which were moving to WNEV late that summer. The campaign was primarily launched as a continued attempt to bolster the station's third-place news ratings, and to promote its news-sharing partnership with other TV and radio stations, The New England News Exchange.

Advertising sales for the stations paled in comparison to the competition, and managing both stations became a burden for the couple, so the Stewarts sold the station in 1972 to Fairchild Industries for $1.5 million. Fairchild subsequently dismissed the entire staff and overhauled both stations. On November 3, 1972, the AM station was relaunched as WYOO, picking up an oldies format (with rock and roll included). A few days later, WPBC-FM became WRAH and programmed an automated album oriented rock format. When the oldies format of WYOO started to slide in the ratings, more MOR music was added, but ratings slid even further. Fairchild contemplated selling the station. The general manager (Mike Sigelman) and program director (Rob Sherwood) (1974), both hired from established Top 40 station KDWB, felt a major change needed to be made.

In 2013, Governor Rick Scott signed the Timely Justice Act (HB 7101) which overhauled the processes for capital punishment. The United States Supreme Court struck down part of this law in January 2016 in Hurst v. Florida, declaring that a judge determining the aggravating facts to be used in considering a death sentence with only a non-binding recommendation from the jury based on a majority vote was insufficient and violated the Sixth Amendment guarantee of a jury trial. The Florida legislature passed a new statute to comply with the judgement in March 2016, changing the sentencing method to require a 10-juror supermajority for a sentence of death with a life sentence as the alternative. This new sentencing scheme was struck down by the Florida Supreme Court in a ruling 5–2 in October 2016, which held that a death sentence must be issued by a unanimous jury. The United States Supreme Court later left this decision undisturbed. Governor Scott in early 2017 signed a new law requiring a unanimous jury.

During 1954 she was overhauled at Norfolk Navy Yard, took refresher training at Narragansett Bay and another "Sunec" cruise on which she visited Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland. Two training cruises in the Caribbean in 1955 were succeeded by a third "Sunec" deployment on which she crossed the Arctic Circle for the second time.


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